코엑스 D홀, E-23, 2023.08.03-06
Machine generates and Human creates.
생성형 인공지능을 활용한 새로운 디자인 결과물을 창작하는 실험과 도전
최근 생성형 인공지능이 프롬프트(파라미터)를 이용하여 2D이미지뿐 아니라 3D형태까지 생성할 수는 있지만, 그것이 과연 예술 작품만이 가질 수 있는 ‘가치’를 창조하는 것이냐는 논쟁이 뜨겁습니다. 생성형 인공지능을 이용하여 눈깜짝할 사이에 만들어지는 블렌디드(Blended) 이미지나 오브제는 일반인 수준에는 그럴싸한 아트나 디자인일 수 있으나, 우리 프로들이 보여줄 수 있는 창작의 결과물은 아닐 수도 있다고 생각합니다.
과연 디자이너가 생성형 인공지능을 이용하여 어떤 디자인 창작물을 만들 수 있고, 그것에 ‘가치평가’와 ‘가치창조’를 부여할 수 있을까? 하는 질문과 도전에서 이 작업은 시작되었습니다.
우선, 생성형 인공지능의 본질을 잘 이해한다면 최종적으로 ‘가치’를 가질 수 결과물을 만들 수 있다는 확신을 가지고, 이를 위해 생성형 AI와 인간 디자이너인 나는 서로 역할을 나누어 작업을 진행하였습니다.
생성형 AI는 컨셉을 위한 조사, 도출, 정리 등을 진행하고, 인간 디자이너인 나는 주제를 선정하고, 생성형 인공지능의 생성물을 평가 검증하며, 의자의 형태를 상상하고 만들고 다듬어 완성해 나가는 것과, 그것에 의미를 부여, 감성을 불어 넣으며, 비판적 시각으로 그것을 바라보며 평가하여 그것을 완성하였습니다.
다음은 기계-생성형 인공지능 Chat GPT4.0이 생성하고, 인간-디자이너 허 혁이 창작한 <Liberty Lounger>의 디자인 과정 중의 일부를 소개한 것입니다.
- 허 혁
이태리 디자이너 Gaetano Pesce 가에타노 페세의 UP5 의자(1969년)는 현대 디자인의 대표적인 아이콘으로, 레디컬 이탈리아 디자인과 페미니즘 운동이 활발했던 시기에 전통적인 형태에 도전하는 상징으로 등장하여, 디자인이 기능성을 초월하여 사회적 해석의 매개체로서 기능할 수 있다는 영구적인 예시로 남아 있습니다. ‘Donna’ 로도 불린 이 의자는 사회에서 여성의 지위에 대한 상징적인 표현과 해석을 담고 있습니다.
UP5 의자가 사회적 논평의 강력한 상징이라는 유산을 바탕으로, 현대사회에서 LGBTQ+가 직면하는 사회적 편견과 억압을 은유적으로 표현하는 새로운 디자인을 제시합니다. 혁신적인 디자인 요소, 상징적인 형태, 의미 있는 재료들을 결합한 이 의자는 사회 규범에 도전하고, 대화를 촉발하며, 한국사회에서의 수용과 포용성을 촉진하는 것을 목표로 합니다.
‘조각된 요소’, ‘맞물리는 구조’, ‘곡선과 유동적인 선’, ‘각진 형태’, ‘균형이 깨진 비대칭적 구성’으로 이루어진 <Liberty Lounger>는 생성형 인공지능을 활용한 디자인 컨셉 도출과 파라메트릭 디자인 프로세스, CNC 가공 등 최근의 혁신적인 디자인 기법들을 적용하였으며, ‘숨겨진 형상’과 ‘상징적인 색상’을 통해 다양성, 포용성, 공정성의 숨겨진 의미를 전달하며, 관람자에게 사색적이고 의미있는 경험을 제공합니다.
2023.8.3 허 혁×ChatGPT4.0
Phase1. Conception with Chat GPT4.0 중 일부
1. Education: Pesce studied architecture at the University of Venice (IUAV) and was part of a vibrant community of designers and architects who were pushing the boundaries of the design profession in the 1960s. 2. Early Career and Recognition: Gaetano Pesce gained early recognition for his innovative approach to materials and manufacturing techniques. He experimented with resins, foams, and other synthetic materials to create furniture and objects tha t were both functional and aesthetically intriguing. 3. Up Series: Perhaps one of his most famous works is the Up series of chairs, which includes the Up 5 chair, designed in 1969. This series is notable for its expressive shapes and use of innovative materials. The Up 5 chair, in particular, is seen as a symbol of the 1960s' Radical Design movement, representing a blend of social commentary and design innovation. 4. Multidisciplinary Approach: Pesce’s work is diverse, encompassing architecture, interior design, industrial design, and even fine arts. He is known for his ability to blur the lines between these disciplines, often incorporating elements from each to create holistic designs. 5. Innovation and Experimentation: Throughout his career, Gaetano Pesce has been known for his willingness to experiment with new materials and forms. His work often pushes the boundaries of what is possible within design, both in terms of materiality and form. 6. Social and Political Commentary: Many of Pesce’s designs incorporate social and political commentary. His works often address themes such as the human condition, gender, and societal norms. 7. Awards and Recognition: Gaetano Pesce has received numerous awards and accolades for his contributions to design and architecture. His work has been exhibited in museums and galleries around the world, including the Museum of Modern Art in New York. In summary, Gaetano Pesce is a visionary and influential figure in design, whose innovative and experimental approach has pushed the boundaries of architecture and industrial design, and whose work often carries significant social and political commentary. H(허혁): Please explain in more detail the feminism and the struggle of women expressed in the UP5 chair. GPT: Gaetano Pesce's UP5 chair, also known as the "Donna" chair, embodies a powerful statement on feminism and the struggles of women, particularly focusing on the op pression and constraints women faced in society during the 1960s when the chair was designed. 1. Representation of the Female Form: The design of the UP5 chair resembles a curvaceous female body, and this was a deliberate choice by Gaetano Pesce. The chair’s form is representative of a woman’s body and is meant to draw attention to the female figure. By using the female form as a basis for the design, Pesce intentionally made the woman and her form the central focus of the piece. 2. Symbolism of Constraints and Shackles: The UP5 chair comes with anottom an shaped like a ball. When looked at together, the chair and ottoman resemble a prisoner with a ball and chain. This imagery is symbolic of the shackles that women were (and often still are) bound by due to societal expectations, traditional roles, and gender inequalities. It portrays how women were restrained and tethered to certain roles and expectations, much like how a prisoner is bound by chains. 3. Material and Packaging Commentary: The UP5 chair was innovative in the way it was packaged and sold. Initially vacuum-packed, the chair would expand once out of its packaging. This can also be interpreted as a metaphor for women’s roles and identities being constrained or ‘compressed’ by societal expectations. When allowed freedom and space, much like the chair out of its packaging, women can expand to their full potential. 4. Empathy and Awareness: By designing a chair that is both visually striking and laden with symbolism, Pesce aimed to evoke empathy and awareness about the state of women in society. The physical experience of sitting in a chair that represents a bound and constrained body could also serve to make the user reflect on the physical and emotional constraints that women experience. 5. Challenge to Traditional Design: The chair’s bold and unconventional design was also a challenge to the traditional aesthetics and conventions of the time. This can be seen as parallel to the challenges that women were beginning to mount against traditional gender roles and societal expectations during the second wave of feminism. In summary, the UP5 chair by Gaetano Pesce serves as a thought-provoking and symbolic representation of the struggles and constraints faced by women, particularly during the 1960s. Its design and symbolism were meant to challenge the viewer’s perceptions and create a dialogue about gender roles, oppression, and the potential for liberation and expansion. H(허혁): Just as he raised the issue of women's social oppression in the 1970s as an UP5 chair, I'm trying to redesign the UP5 chair by metaphorically expressing the social prejudice against LGBTQ people in this day and age. GPT: Redesigning the UP5 Chair: Challenging LGBTQ+ Prejudice and Fostering Acceptance Building upon the legacy of the UP5 chair as a powerful symbol of social commentary, we present a redesign that metaphorically expresses the social prejudice faced by LGBTQ+ individuals in the present day. This new iteration of the chair aims to challenge societal norms, spark conversations, and promote acceptance and inclusivity within Korean society. 1. Symbolic Representation: The redesigned UP5 chair embodies the struggles and triumphs of the LGBTQ+ community through its form and visual elements. The chair's structure can incorporate interlocking pieces or elements that are initially fragmented or disjointed, symbolizing the fragmented nature of acceptance for LGBTQ+ individuals in society. As the chair is assembled, these pieces come together, representing unity and the journey towards equality and understanding. 2. Colors and Materials: Incorporating colors that reflect the LGBTQ+ pride flag, the chair embraces the vibrancy and diversity of sexual orientations and gender identities. The use of inclusive colors, such as the rainbow spectrum, sends a powerful message of acceptance and celebrates the beauty of individuality. The materials chosen should align with sustainability principles, underscoring the importance of nurturing an inclusive environment for both people and the planet. 3. Hidden Symbolism: The redesigned UP5 chair can feature hidden symbolism, allowing users to discover thought-provoking messages as they explore the chair. Engravings or embossed patterns within the structure can represent important LGBTQ+ milestones, historical moments, or meaningful quotes that challenge prejudice and promote understanding. These hidden elements create a sense of discovery and encourage conversations around LGBTQ+ issues. 4. Public Engagement and Awareness: To amplify the impact of the redesigned chair, public engagement and awareness campaigns are essential. Collaboration with LGBTQ+ organizations, community groups, and advocacy platforms can help raise awareness about the chair's symbolism and the broader issues of prejudice and discrimination. Exhibitions, installations, and public events can be organized to encourage dialogue, foster empathy, and promote acceptance within Korean society. 5. Education and Empathy: The redesigned UP5 chair can be accompanied by educational materials and resources that provide insights into LGBTQ+ experiences, histories, and challenges. This includes highlighting personal stories and narratives to humanize the struggles faced by the community. By fostering empathy and understanding, the chair becomes a tool for education, breaking down stereotypes, and promoting a more inclusive and compassionate society. Conclusion: The redesigned UP5 chair serves as a powerful metaphorical expression of the social prejudice and discrimination faced by LGBTQ+ individuals in contemporary Korean society. Through its symbolic representation, hidden symbolism, and public engagement initiatives, the chair aims to challenge societal norms, spark conversations, and foster acceptance and inclusivity. By raising awareness, promoting empathy, and advocating for LGBTQ+ rights, the chair becomes a catalyst for positive change, encouraging Korean society to embrace diversity, celebrate individuality, and work towards a more inclusive future. H(허혁): Okay, first of all, can you develop more specifically about form as a Symbolic Repre sentation? GPT: In the redesign of the UP5 chair, the form itself becomes a powerful symbol of representation, reflecting the struggles and experiences of the LGBTQ+ community. Here are some specific ways in which the form can metaphorically express social prejudice: 1. Fragmented Elements: The chair's design can incorporate fragmented or disjointed elements, symbolizing the societal divisions and lack of unity surrounding LGBTQ+ acceptance. These fragmented elements can represent the challenges faced by individuals in navigating a society that may not fully embrace their identities. 2. Interlocking Pieces: As the chair is assembled, the fragmented elements come together, representing the unity and solidarity within the LGBTQ+ community. This metaphorical representation highlights the importance of support and collective efforts in overcoming prejudice and discrimination. 3. Curved and Fluid Lines: The form of the chair can feature curved and fluid lines, reflecting the diversity and fluidity of sexual orientations and gender identities. These organic shapes symbolize the multifaceted nature of human identities, challenging rigid societal norms and promoting acceptance of individuality. 4. Imbalanced Structure: The chair's structure can intentionally incorporate an imbalance or asymmetry, symbolizing the unequal treatment and marginalization experienced by LGBTQ+ individuals. This design choice represents the need for society to address these imbalances and strive for a more equitable and inclusive environment. 5. Embracing Unconventional Design: The redesigned UP5 chair can depart from traditional design conventions, embracing unconventional shapes and forms. This departure reflects the need to break free from societal expectations and embrace diverse identities and expressions. By incorporating these symbolic elements into the form of the chair, it becomes a tangible representation of the challenges faced by LGBTQ+ individuals in the face of prejudice and discrimination. The chair serves as a visual reminder of the ongoing struggle for acceptance and equality, inviting viewers to engage in conversations and reflect upon the importance of fostering a more inclusive society. H(허혁): Then can you elaborate on the new form of this chair? For example, it's huge in size, angular form, etc. GPT: Here are some elaborations on the new form of the UP5 chair, considering its size, angular form, and other design aspects: 1. Monumental Size: The redesigned UP5 chair can be created on a monumental scale, making a bold and impactful statement. Its large size commands attention and becomes a focal point within any space. The oversized proportions serve to emphasize the significance of the message it carries, drawing viewers to engage with its symbolism and meaning. 2. Angular Form: Departing from the original curvaceous shape, the new form of the chair can incorporate angular elements. The use of sharp angles and geometric lines creates a visually striking contrast, representing the societal barriers and rigidity that LGBTQ+ individuals often face. This angularity metaphorically expresses the challenges of breaking free from societal expectations and norms. 3. Open and Inviting Design: Despite its angular form, the redesigned chair can maintain an open and inviting design language. It can feature an open seat and backrest, symbolizing inclusivity and welcoming individuals of all backgrounds and identities. This design approach encourages engagement, fostering dialogue and understanding between people with diverse perspectives. 4. Asymmetric Composition: The chair's composition can incorporate intentional asymmetry, representing the complex and diverse nature of the LGBTQ+ community. By avoiding strict symmetry, the design embraces the uniqueness and individuality of each person's experience. This asymmetry serves as a reminder that societal norms and expectations should not limit personal expression or identity. 5. Metaphorical Elements: The new form of the chair can integrate metaphorical elements that further enhance its symbolism. For instance, sharp edges and intersecting lines can represent the intersectionality of LGBTQ+ identities and the interconnectedness of different struggles faced within the community. The design can incorporate subtle details, such as engraved patterns or embossed textures, that symbolize resilience and the journey toward acceptance. By combining these design elements, including a monumental size, angular form, open design, asymmetric composition, and metaphorical details, the redesigned UP5 chair creates a visually captivating and thought-provoking piece. Its form becomes a representation of the challenges, resilience, and progress in the LGBTQ+ community, inviting viewers to reflect upon societal prejudice and discrimination while fostering a sense of inclusivity and acceptance. H(허혁): Is it better to use parametric design process to express this form? GPT: Yes, parametric design techniques can be highly beneficial in expressing the complex and symbolic form of the redesigned UP5 chair. Parametric design allows for the creation of intricate and dynamic forms by establishing relationships between design parameters and generating variations based on these relationships. Here's how parametric design can enhance the expression of the chair's form: 1. Exploration of Form: Parametric design enables designers to explore a wide range of form options and iterate through different design iterations quickly. By defining the parameters that govern the chair's form, such as angles, curves, and proportions, designers can generate numerous variations and experiment with different aesthetic expressions. 2. Customization and Adaptability: Parametric design techniques allow for customization and adaptability to individual preferences and requirements. The chair's form can be tailored to specific user needs, ensuring ergonomic comfort while maintaining the symbolic and metaphorical elements. The flexibility of parametric design ensures that the chair can accommodate various body types and spatial contexts. 3. Symbolic Relationships: Parametric design techniques can help establish symbolic relationships within the chair's form. By defining parameters that represent metaphorical elements, such as fragmented or interlocking pieces, designers can create dynamic and meaningful connections within the design. These relationships can reflect the struggles, unity, and journey towards acceptance in the LGBTQ+ community. 4. Integration of Technology: Parametric design often utilizes advanced computational tools and software that enable designers to generate and manipulate complex forms. This integration of technology, such as generative algorithms and 3D modeling software, empowers designers to push the boundaries of creativity and express the desired form with precision and efficiency. 5. Iterative Design Process: Parametric design allows for an iterative design process, where designers can fine-tune and refine the chair's form based on feedback and evolving design considerations. The flexibility of parametric design facilitates a collaborative and iterative approach, enabling designers to create a form that effectively communicates the intended symbolism and metaphorical expression. In summary, parametric design techniques provide designers with the tools to explore, customize, and refine the symbolic form of the UP5 chair. By leveraging the capabilities of parametric design, designers can create a visually captivating and conceptually rich form that effectively expresses the metaphorical issues surrounding LGBTQ+ repression and discrimination. H(허혁): Now, Please elaborate on the Concept Development GPT: The concept development phase of the redesigned UP5 chair involved a thoughtful exploration of design elements and ideas that could effectively express the metaphorical issues related to LGBTQ+ repression and discrimination. The goal was to create a concept that not only symbolically represents the struggles faced by the LGBTQ+ community but also resonates with viewers on an emotional level. Several key aspects were considered during the concept development process: 1. Symbolism: The concept aimed to incorporate meaningful symbolism that would communicate the essence of the LGBTQ+ experience. Shapes, patterns, or details were explored to convey messages of equality, freedom, and acceptance. The symbolism was carefully selected to evoke empathy, spark conversations, and challenge societal norms. 2. Form and Structure: The form and structure of the chair were designed to reflect the metaphorical expression. An angular and dynamic form was considered to symbolize the obstacles and challenges faced by LGBTQ+ individuals. The interplay between rigid lines and fluid curves represented the resilience and fluidity of identity. 3. Contrast: Contrast played a significant role in the concept development. The contrast between bold and subtle elements was explored to create visual interest and highlight the message of inclusivity and acceptance. This could include a contrast between vibrant colors and muted tones or a juxtaposition of different textures or materials. 4. Emotion and Empathy: The concept aimed to elicit strong emotional responses from viewers and create a sense of empathy towards the experiences of the LGBTQ+ community. The design elements were carefully chosen to evoke emotions such as compassion, understanding, and support. 5. Storytelling: The concept aimed to tell a compelling narrative through the design. The chair would act as a visual storyteller, inviting viewers to engage with the story of LGBTQ+ struggle, resilience, and triumph. Elements such as engraved patterns, interlocking details, or hidden symbols were considered to enhance the narrative aspect. Throughout the concept development process, extensive research, sketching, and prototyping were conducted to refine and iterate the ideas. Feedback from individuals within the LGBTQ+ community, as well as design experts, was sought to ensure the concept's authenticity and effectiveness in conveying the intended message. By focusing on symbolism, form, contrast, emotion, and storytelling, the concept development phase created a strong foundation for the redesigned UP5 chair. The resulting concept aimed to provoke thought, initiate conversations, and foster a greater understanding and acceptance of LGBTQ+ experiences.
H(허혁): Let's take a look at the Up 5 chair designed by Gaetano Pesce in 1969. First of all, can you explain the background, situation, and trend of Italian design at the time?
GPT: Gaetano Pesce is an Italian architect and designer, renowned for his innovative and multidisciplinary approach to design. As of my last knowledge update in September 2021, he is still active in the design world. Born on November 8, 1939, in La Spezi a, Italy, Pesce has been influential in both the fields of architecture and industrial d esign.
Here are some key aspects of Gaetano Pesce's career and work:
Phase2. Schematic Design
형태 디자인 Form Design Study
UP5를 재해석, 재디자인하는 것으로부터 출발, LGBTQ+(성소수자)에 대한 사회적 편견과 차별을 상징적, 은유적으로 표현하는 형태를 구상.
1. 조각난 형태 요소: LGBTQ+인식에 대한 사회적 분열과 그들의 단결의 부재를 상징, 세그먼트, 폴리곤 요소
2. 맞물리는 형태: 조립되는 의자로의 구성, 조각난 요소들이 하나로 연결되어 단결과 연대의 중요성을 표현
3. 곡선과 유동적인 선: 성적 지향과 성 정체성의 다양성을 반영.
4. 각진 형태: 날카로운 각도와 기하학적인 선들로 시각적인 대조를 만듦, LGBTQ+개인들이 마주하는 사회적 장벽과 견고함을 상징.
5. 균형이 깨진 구조: 의도적인 비대칭, 균형을 깨트림을 통해 불평등한 대우와 사회의 불균형에 대한 표현
Phase4. Mock-up Study
Phase3. Design Develop
1. 파라메트릭 디자인 Parametric Design
파라메트릭 디자인은 복잡하고 상징적인 형태로 의자를 디벨롭시키는데 유리.
파라메트릭 기법을 통해 형태의 다양한 변형을 실험하며, 파편화된 조각이나 맞물리는 디자인 요소등을 구체화하여, 의자를 통해 전달하려고 하는 상징적인 관계성을 만들어 낼 수 있다.
2. 색상계획 Color scheme
일반적으로 무지개 색상은 LGBTQ+ 커뮤니티의 단결과 정체성을 표현하는데 사용됨.
실제 의자에 적용한 색상은 다이크로닉 필름과 빛을 활용하여 보는 각도와 빛의 세기에 따라 여러가지 색상의 조합을 볼 수 있다. 이를 통해 한국사회에 필요한 LGBTQ+에 대한 포용성, 수용성 및 그 커뮤니티를 상징할 수 있도록 하였다. (무지개색, 파스텔톤, 중립색상, 대비와 강조 등 모든 색상 요소를 담는다)
3. 숨겨진 상징성 Hidden Symbol
숨겨진 상징성을 통해 이 의자의 숨겨진 의미를 전달하고 사색적이고 의미있는 경험을 제공한다 - 가치비판, 가치창조
숨겨진 모티브, 새겨진 무늬등으로 평등, 사랑, 자유의 중요한 상징 표현.
메세지를 형성하기 위한 전략적 배치를 통해 단결이나 연결로 강해짐을 상징.